Selasa, 30 Juli 2013

HARI TERAKHIR MOPDB SMK PENERBANGAN ANGKASA BOGOR !

Inilah peleton 2 kelas hercules siswa SMK PENERBANGAN ANGKASA BOGOR di saat hari terakhir mopdb di suguhi acara penanaman pohon, setiap peleton atau yg artinya peleton itu pasukan mendapatkan 2 pohon yg akan di tanam oleh setiap peleton, semoga pohon yg kita tanam subur dan tumbuh dan berkembang baik.






Dan setelah usai acara penanaman pohon peleton 2 bergegas menuju gedung megantara dengan tertib, tak jauh dari sekolah, untuk melanjutkan acara berikutnya yaitu motifator atu untuk membangkitkan motifasi siswa SMK PENERBANGAN ANGKASA BOGOR, sayangnya saya tidak memiliki foto di saat acara itu di sana suasananya campur aduk terharu, senang, serius untuk menebank gambar yg menipu mata hahahah dan melakukan sedikit senam otak yg di lakukan dengan kedua tangan.
di gedung megantara kita dibikin CRY di depan orang tua dan setelah CRY siswapun bergegas berlarian... mencari oarang tuanya untuk meminta maaf .













sekian dari saya Firman Agung.R mohon maaf jika ada sesuatu yg terlewatkan tak tertulis karna saya sedikit lupa dan mohon maaf kepada danton pemimpin pleton 2 jika kita semua membuat jengkel.... 

Kamis, 06 Juni 2013

Sejarah Jeans

Levi Strauss & Co.






Gangartiiii bahasanyaaa di translate aja ada ko di bagian atas di bawah kolom label.. itu detailnya... hahaha sepele
























References: [2]

Levi's Plaza, corporate headquarters
Levi Strauss & Co. /ˌlv ˈstrɔːs/, also known as LS&CO or simply Levi's, is a privately held American clothing company known worldwide for its Levi's brand of denim jeans. It was founded in 1853 when Levi Strauss came from Buttenheim, Bavaria, to San Francisco, California to open a west coast branch of his brothers' New York dry goods business. In 1873, Levi Strauss and tailor Jacob Davis received a U.S. patent to make the first riveted men's work pants out of denim: the first blue jeans. The company briefly experimented (in the 1970s) with a public stock listing, but remains owned and controlled by descendants and relatives of Levi Strauss's four nephews. The company's corporate headquarters is located at Levi's Plaza in San Francisco.[3]

Organization

Levi Strauss & Co. is a worldwide corporation organized into three geographic divisions: Levi Strauss Americas (LSA), based in the San Francisco headquarters; Levi Strauss Europe, Middle East and Africa (LSEMA), based in Brussels; and Asia Pacific Division (APD), based in Singapore. The company employs a staff of approximately 10,500 people worldwide. The core Levi's was founded in 1873 in San Francisco, specializing in riveted denim jeans and different lines of casual and street fashion.[4]
From the early 1960s through the mid-1970s, Levi Strauss experienced significant growth in its business as the more casual look of the 1960s and 1970s ushered in the "blue jeans craze" and served as a catalyst for the brand. Levi's, under the leadership of Walter Haas Jr., Peter Haas, Ed Combs, and Mel Bacharach, expanded the firm's clothing line by adding new fashions, including stone-washed jeans through the acquisition of Great Western Garment Co. (GWG), a Canadian clothing manufacturer, and introducing Permanent Press trousers under the Sta-prest name.
The company experienced rapid expansion of its manufacturing capacity from 16 plants to more than 63 plants in the United States from 1964 to 1974 and 23 overseas. They used "pay for performance" manufacturing from the sewing machine operator level up.
2004 saw a sharp decline of GWG in the face of global outsourcing, so the company was closed and the Edmonton manufacturing plant shut down.[5] The Dickers brand, launched in 1986[6] which is sold largely through department store chains, helped the company grow through the mid-1990s, as denim sales began to fade. Dickers were introduced into Europe in 199b. Levi Strauss attempted to sell the Dockers division in 2004 to relieve part of the company's $2.6 billion outstanding debt.[7]
Launched in 2003, Levi Strauss Signature features jeanswear and casualwear.[8] In November 2007, Levi's released a mobile phone in co-operation with ModeLabs. Many of the phone's cosmetic attributes are customisable at the point of purchase.

History

Levi Strauss started the business at the 90 Sacramento Street address in San Francisco. He next moved the location to 62 Sacramento Street then 63 & 65 Sacramento Street.
Jacob Davis, a Jewish emigrant from Latvia, was a tailor who frequently purchased bolts of cloth made from hemp[citation needed] from Levi Strauss & Co.'s wholesale house. After one of Davis' customers kept purchasing cloth to reinforce torn pants, he had an idea to use copper rivets to reinforce the points of strain, such as on the pocket corners and at the base of the button fly. Davis did not have the required money to purchase a patent, so he wrote to Strauss suggesting that they go into business together. After Levi accepted Jacob's offer, on May 20, 1873, the two men received U.S. Patent 139,121 from the United States Patent and Trademark Office. The patented rivet was later incorporated into the company's jean design and advertisements. Contrary to an advertising campaign suggesting that Levi Strauss sold his first jeans to gold miners during the California Gold Rush (which peaked in 1849), the manufacturing of denim overalls only began in the 1870s. The company then created their first pair of Levis 501 Jeans in the 1890s, a style that went on to become the world's best selling item of clothing.[9]
photo of an advertising sign for Levi Strauss & Co. painted on a brick wall in Woodland, California
Levi Strauss advertising sign
Modern jeans began to appear in the 1920s, but sales were largely confined to the working people of the western United States, such as cowboys, lumberjacks, and railroad workers. Levi’s jeans apparently were first introduced to the East during the dude ranch craze of the 1930s, when vacationing Easterners returned home with tales (and usually examples) of the hard-wearing pants with rivets. Another boost came in World War II, when blue jeans were declared an essential commodity and were sold only to people engaged in defense work. From a company with fifteen salespeople, two plants, and almost no business east of the Mississippi in 1946, the organization grew in thirty years to include a sales force of more than 22,000, with 50 plants and offices in 35 countries.[10]
Between the 1950s and 1980s, Levi's jeans became popular among a wide range of youth subcultures, including greasers, mods, rockers, hippies and skinheads. Levi's popular shrink-to-fit 501s were sold in a unique sizing arrangement; the indicated size referred to the size of the jeans prior to shrinking, and the shrinkage was substantial. The company still produces these unshrunk, uniquely sized jeans, and they are still Levi's number one selling product. Although popular lore (abetted by company marketing) holds that the original design remains unaltered, this is not the case: the company's president got too close to a campfire, and the rivet at the bottom of the crotch conducted the fire's heat too well; the offending rivet, which is depicted in old advertisements, was removed.[11]

1990s and later


Levi's 506 inside
By the 1990s, the brand was facing competition from other brands and cheaper products from overseas, and began accelerating the pace of its US factory closures and its use of offshore subcontracting agreements. In 1991, Levi Strauss faced a scandal involving pants made in the Northern Mariana Islands, where some 3% of Levi's jeans sold annually with the Made in the USA label were shown to have been made by Chinese laborers under what the United States Department of Labor called "slavelike" conditions. Today, most Levi's jeans are made outside the US, though a few of the higher end, more expensive styles are still made in the U.S.
Cited for sub-minimum wages, seven-day work weeks with 12-hour shifts, poor living conditions and other indignities, Tan Holdings Corporation, Levi Strauss' Marianas subcontractor, paid what were then the largest fines in U.S. labor history, distributing more than $9 million in restitution to some 1,200 employees.[12][13][14] Levi Strauss claimed no knowledge of the offenses, then severed ties to the Tan family and instituted labor reforms and inspection practices in its offshore facilities.
The activist group Fuerza Unida (United Force) was formed following the January 1990 closure of a plant in San Antonio, Texas, in which 1,150 seamstresses, some of whom had worked for Levi Strauss for decades, saw their jobs exported to Costa Rica.[15] During the mid- and late-1990s, Fuerza Unida picketed the Levi Strauss headquarters in San Francisco and staged hunger strikes and sit-ins in protest of the company's labor policies.[16][17][18]
The company took on multi-billion dollar debt in February 1996 to help finance a series of leveraged stock buyouts among family members. Shares in Levi Strauss stock are not publicly traded; the firm is today owned almost entirely by indirect descendants and relatives of Levi Strauss, whose four nephews inherited the San Francisco dry goods firm after their uncle's death in 1902.[19] The corporation's bonds are traded publicly, as are shares of the company's Japanese affiliate, Levi Strauss Japan K.K.
In June 1996, the company offered to pay its workers an unusual dividend of up to $750 million in six years' time, having halted an employee stock plan at the time of the internal family buyout. However, the company failed to make cash flow targets, and no worker dividends were paid.[20] In 2002, Levi Strauss began a close business collaboration with Walmart, producing a special line of "Signature" jeans and other clothes for exclusive sale in Walmart stores until 2006.[21] Levi Strauss Signature jeans can now be purchased at several stores in the US, Canada, India, Pakistan and Japan.
According to the New York Times, Levi Strauss leads the apparel industry in trademark infringement cases, filing nearly 100 lawsuits against competitors since 2001. Most cases center on the alleged imitation of Levi's back pocket double arc stitching pattern (U.S. trademark #1,139,254), which Levi filed for trademark in 1978.[22] Levi's has successfully sued Guess?, Polo Ralph Lauren, Esprit Holdings, Zegna, Zumiez and Lucky Brand Jeans, among other companies.[23]
By 2007, Levi Strauss was again said to be profitable after declining sales in nine of the previous ten years.[24] Its total annual sales, of just over $4 billion, were $3 billion less than during its peak performance in the mid-1990s.[25] After more than two decades of family ownership, rumors of a possible public stock offering were floated in the media in July 2007.[26] In 2009, it was noted in the media for selling Jeans on interest-free credit, due to the global recession.[27][28] In 2010, the company partnered with Filson, an outdoor goods manufacturer in Seattle, to produce a high-end line of jackets and workwear.[29]
On May 8, 2013, the NFL's San Francisco 49ers announced that Levi Strauss & Co. had purchased the naming rights to their new stadium in Santa Clara, California. The naming rights deal calls for Levi's to pay $220.3 million to the city of Santa Clara and the 49ers over 20 years, with an option to extend the deal for another five years for around $75 million.[30]

Advertising

Levi's marketing style has often made use of old recordings of popular music in television commercials, ranging from traditional pop to punk rock. Notable examples include Ben E King ("Stand By Me"), Percy Sledge ("When a Man Loves a Woman"), Eddie Cochran ("C'mon Everybody!"), Marc Bolan ("20th Century Boy"), Screamin' Jay Hawkins ("Heart Attack & Vine"), The Clash ("Should I Stay or Should I Go?"), as well as lesser known material, such as "Falling Elevators" and "The City Sleeps" by MC 900 Ft. Jesus and "Flat Beat" and "Monday Massacre" by Mr. Oizo.
Many of these songs were re-released by their record labels as a tie-in with the ad campaigns, resulting in increased popularity and sales of the recordings and the creation of iconic visual associations with the music, such as the use of a topless male model wearing jeans underwater in the 1986 adverts featuring "Wonderful World" and "Mad about the Boy" and the puppet, Flat Eric, in the ads featuring music by Mr. Oizo.

Merpati Nusantara Airlines

Merpati Nusantara
Logo merpati lowres.jpg
IATA ICAO Kode panggil
MZ MNA MERPATI
Didirikan 6 September 1962






Kota tujuan 87
Kantor pusat Jakarta Pusat, Jakarta, Indonesia
Orang penting Rudy Setyopurnomo - CEO
Situs web www.merpati.co.id
Merpati Nusantara Airlines atau selanjutnya dikenal dengan nama Merpati Nusantara yang selanjutnya dikenal sebagai Merpati dengan kode penerbangan MZ adalah salah satu perusahan penerbangan nasional domestik di Indonesia. Pernah beberapa tahun yang lalu menerbangan rute rute regional Asia Tenggara dan Australia. Maskapai ini masuk penilaian kategori 1 (kinerja sangat baik) dari Kementerian Perhubungan[1]. Merpati mendapatkan penilaian bintang 2 (kualitas pelayanan kurang) dari Skytrax[2]. Dalam masalah keselamatan penerbangan, maskapai ini memiliki rekor keselamatan yang tergolong buruk jika dibandingkan maskapai Indonesia lainnya, terutama disebabkan oleh fokus penerbangan maskapai ini ke wilayah Indonesia Timur yang fasilitas bandaranya masih minim. Seperti beberapa maskapai Indonesia lainnya, maskapai ini masuk daftar hitam Uni Eropa karena masalah keamanan dan keselamatan.
Bermodal Rp10 juta dan enam pesawat, Merpati Nusantara Airlines memulai usahanya sebagai jembatan udara yang menghubungkan tempat-tempat terpencil di Kalimantan. Sejak berdiri, tanggal 6 September 1962, sampai sekarang, Merpati mengalami pasang surut. "Jembatan Udara Nusantara". yang sarat misi ini memang seringkali dihimpit masalah.
Merpati "lahir" berdasarkan Peraturan Pemerintah (PP) No.19 tahun 1962 yang menetapkan pendirian perusahaan negara perhubungan udara daerah dan penerbangan serbaguna Merpati Nusantara, yang disebut juga PN Merpati Nusantara. Perusahaan milik negara ini memiliki lapangan usaha, meliputi penyelenggaraan perhubungan udara di daerah-daerah dan penerbangan serbaguna serta memajukan segala sesuatu yang berkaitan dengan angkutan udara dalam arti kata yang seluas-luasnya. Maksud dan tujuannya adalah dalam rangka turut membangun perekonomian nasional di sektor perhubungan udara dengan mengutamakan kepentingan rakyat.
Sebuah Merpati Nusantara Vickers Vanguard 953 Tahun 1977
F-28 Merpati
Awalnya, Merpati memiliki armada jenis de Havilland Otter/DHC-3 empat unit dan Dakota DC-3 dua unit, yang merupakan pesawat hibah dari Angkatan Udara Republik Indonesia (TNI AU). Ketika itu diketahui, modal awal perusahaan berupa uang rupiah lama sejumlah Rp10 juta. Para pilot dan teknisi dipasok dari AURI, Garuda Indonesia (dulu Garuda Indonesia Airways), dan perusahaan penerbangan sipil lainnya.
Sebagai direktur utama, ditunjuk Komodor Udara Henk Sutoyo Adiputro (1962-1966), yang membawahi hanya 17 personel. Beberapa bulan kemudian, tahun 1963, penerbangan Merpati pun tak hanya di Kalimantan, tapi juga menerbangi rute Jakarta-Semarang, Jakarta-Tanjung Karang, dan Jakarta-Balikpapan.
Tahun 1964, Merpati menerima penyerahan seluruh hak konsesi dan operasi, serta kepemilikan sejumlah pesawat bekas maskapai Belanda NV de Kroonduif dari Garuda. Pengalihan ini dilakukan, dengan alasan Garuda sedang mengembangkan kegiatan untuk menjadi flag carrier nasional dan internasional. Pesawat hibah itu adalah tiga Dakota DC-3, dua Twin Otter dan satu Beaver. Dengan armada 12 pesawat, Merpati mulai tumbuh. Penerbangannya mulai merambah Papua (Irian Jaya), Sumatera, dan Nusa Tenggara Barat.
Seiring pertumbuhannya, Merpati memandang perlu untuk memperkuat armadanya dengan tambahan tiga Dornier DO-28 dan enam Pilatus Porter PC-6. Namun, beberapa pesawat sebelumnya ada yang tidak lagi dapat dioperasikan sehingga armada efektif Merpati 15 pesawat. Jumlah karyawan Merpati pun bertambah, menjadi 583 orang.

Misi pemerintah

Latar belakang pendirian Merpati adalah untuk mengemban tugas dan misi dari pemerintah. Namun, sejak tahun 1966, Merpati mulai mengkomersialkan diri, di bawah Dirut Capt. R.B. Wibisono (1966-1967). Pada masa ini juga, perusahaan memperluas wilayah operasinya di Papua dan membeli tiga pesawat Pilatus Porter. Misinya, berupa penerbangan-penerbangan perintis, tetap dijalankan. Merpati pun menerima bantuan tiga Twin Otter dari PBB.
Pada masa Marsekal Pertama Udara Santoro Suharto (1967-1975), terlihat kemungkinan Merpati bisa mandiri. Maka, pemerintah daerah mengurangi subsidi operasi penerbangan perintis. Namun, ternyata, pengurangan subsidi tersebut menimbulkan masalah keuangan yang cukup pelik karena penerbangan komersialnya belum beroperasi dengan mantap.
Pemerintah turun tangan lagi, dengan memberinya konsesi untuk ikut ambil bagian dalam menjalankan penerbangan jarak jauh (trunk operation), jarak sedang (semi trunk), dan jarak dekat (federline operation). Untuk mendukung operasinya itu, Merpati menambah armada dengan tujuh Dakota DC-3, yang dibeli dari Australia dan Garuda. Pesawat-pesawat ini dipakai untuk menerbangi rute di Nusa Tenggara Timur yang ditinggalkan Garuda. Sementara itu, penerbangan jarak jauh dan menengah baru dilaksanakan tahun 1970.
Guna meningkatkan efisiensi produksi, dan menjalankan tiga kelompok jalur niaganya, Merpati menambah armada dengan empat Vickers Viscount 828, tiga YS-11, dan dua HS-748. Sebagian dari pesawat-pesawat ini ada yang menerbangi rute internasional, seperti Pontianak-Kuching (Serawak,Malaysia) dan Palembang-Singapura. Di bawah Santoso pula, Merpati menjalin kerjasama dengan sejumlah perusahaan penerbangan nasional dan internasional. Merpati menyerahkan seluruh pesawat Dakota-nya kepada PT Suryadirgantara, untuk dioperasikan bersama. Selain itu, dalam meningkatkan pelayanan dan kinerja usaha, Merpati bekerjasama dengan sejumlah airlines asing, seperti Japan Air Lines, Qantas, Thai Airways International, Lufthansa, Olympic Airways, Trans Australia Airlines, dan China Airlines. Kerjasama tersebut, salah satunya berupa kesepakatan dalam hal ticketing. Dengan menggunakan tiket Merpati, penumpang dapat terbang dengan airlines asing tersebut.
Tahun 1972, dua Vickers Vanguard memperkuat lagi armada Merpati. Wilayah operasinya pun bertambah hingga ke Kuala Lumpur dan Darwin. Merpati juga memperoleh bantuan dua Twin Otter dari Pemerintah Kanada. Pada saat itu, Merpati mengoperasikan armada 32 pesawat, yaitu empat Vicker Viscount, empat YS-11, delapan Pilatus PC-6, tiga Dornier Do-28, tujuh Pilatus Porter, tiga DHC-6 Twin Otter, satu DHC-3 Otter, dan dua Vanguard.
Langkah-langkah usaha Santoso, yang kemudian mengelola airlines Seulawah yang bergabung dengan Mandala kini jadi Mandala Airlines, dilanjutkan Marsekal Muda Udara Ramli Sumardi (1975-1978). Merpati memiliki 37 pesawat, terdiri dari empat Dakota DC-3, , empat Twin Otter, dua Fokker F-27, dua HS-748, lima YS-11, lima VC-8, dan tiga VC-9, untuk menerbangi 97 kota di 19 propinsi. Pesawat-pesawat yang ada sebelumnya, sebagian memang sudah tak lagi operasi. Merpati juga mengoperasikan pesawat BAC-111 dan Boeing 707 untuk penerbangan borongan (carter) internasional, yang terbang Denpasar-Manila dan Los Angeles, Amerika Serikat-Denpasar, yang dihentikan tahun 1979.

Bergabung dengan Garuda

Tahun 1978, keluar PP, yang memengaruhi riwayat Merpati, yaitu PP Nomor 30/1978, yang intinya mengharuskan Merpati mengalihkan modal ke Garuda Indonesia. Merpati yang menjadi anak perusahaan Garuda, tetap menjalankan penerbangan perintis, lintas batas, transmigrasi, borongan wisatawan, dan angkutan barang, serta usaha-usaha lainnya. Pola operasi Merpati memang menyelenggarakan penerbangan pada semua jaraingan penerbangan dalam negeri, secara terpadu dan saling mengisi dengan Garuda.
Penerbangan perintis merupakan tantangan besar tapi mulia bagi Merpati. Namun dalam menjalankannya, Merpati mengikutsertakan sejumlah perusahaan penerbangan swasta. Seperti PT SMAC untuk melayani Sumatera Utara dan Tengah, sejak tahun 1978, dengan PT DAS untuk wilayah Kalimantan (sejak 1979), dengan PT Deraya di Kalimantan (sejak 1988), dengan PT Indoavia di Maluku (sejak 1988), dan dengan PT Asahi Mantrust di Kalimantan Timur.
Pasca keluarnya PP itu, tahun 1979, Dirut Garuda Wiweko Soepono pun menunjuk R.A.J.Lumenta (1979-1983) sebagai direktur utama. Dengan menerapkan sistem manajemen yang ketat dan terarah, Lumenta membawa Merpati ke untuk melangkah lebih baik lagi. Dia juga meyakinkan pemerintah agar memberi dana segar sebesar 18 juta dollar AS, untuk memodernisasi armada.
Lumenta lah yang pertama kali menyuarakan bahwa Merpati tengah merugi, bahkan menuju kebangkrutan. Oleh karena itu, menjadi anak perusahaan Garuda dinilai sebagai langkah paling strategis, ketika itu. Lumenta, yang memang "orang Garuda", pun mengelola Merpati dengan gaya manajemen Garuda, terutama dalam rencana penerbangannya
Kemajuan mulai terlihat, ketika tahun 1980, Merpati memperoleh tambahan 14 NC-212 dari pemerintah. Kemudian, ditambah lagi dengan pembelian empat pesawat bekas dan enam pesawat baru dari jenis yang sama. Selain itu, hanggar-hanggar pemeliharaan pesawat pun dibangun di Makassar dan Manado. Adanya tempat-tempat perawatan pesawat tersebut, merupakan awal keberhasilan Merpati beroperasi di wilayah Timur.
Beberapa bulan pada tahun 1983, Merpati dipimpin J. Soekardjo. Karena masa jabatannya yang singkat itu, ia jarang disebut-sebut. Selanjutnya, pada 10 November 1983, ia digantikan Soeratman (1983-1989).
Pada masa jabatan Soeratman, Merpati memperoleh hibah dua Pesawat Hercules L-100 (versi sipil dari C-130) dari Pelita Air Service, tahun 1986. Merpati juga membuka penerbangan Kupang-Darwin menggunakan HS-748, yang kemudian diganti dengan F-28.
Tanggal 25 Juni 1986, Merpati menandatangani kontrak pembelian 15 CN-235 dari IPTN, pada saat Indonesia Air Show (IAS) yang pertama di bekas Bandara Kemayoran, Jakarta. Penyerahan pertama pesawat yang awalnya merupakan hasil kerjasama CASA dan IPTN itu hanya berlangsung akhir tahun itu juga.
Pada Mei 1989, kembali ada penggatian pucuk pimpinan Merpati. Kali ini giliran Capt. F. H. Sumolang (1989-1992) Langkah ini sebagai titik tolak realisasi integrasi penuh atau operasi terpadu Merpati ke dalam Garuda Indonesia Group. Merpati ditetapkan sebagai pendukung operasi penerbangan Garuda di tingkat domestik. Sejumlah armada Garuda pun dialihkan kepada Merpati, antara lain, enam F-28 Mk.3000, 22 F-28 Mk. 4000, dan sembilan DC-9.

Berlanjutnya masalah Merpati

Pesawat Lockheed TriStar Merpati di Bandar Udara Perth (akhir 1990an).
Pesawat Airbus A310-300 Merpati di Bandar Udara Perth (akhir 1990an).
Masa-masa "gejolak" di dalam tubuh Merpati masih berlangsung . Ridwan Fataruddin (1992-1995) yang menggantikan Sumolang, harus berhadapan dengan permasalahan kekurangan tenaga pilot, menyusul penarikan kembali armada Garuda dari tubuh Merpati. Program pengiriman calon pilot ke Australia dan Selandia Baru yang baru dijalankan, belum dapat mengatasi kekurangan tersebut. Walau di belakangan hari, pasca pemisahan Merpati-Garuda, masalah pilot ini menguak lagi.
Rencana pemisahan kembali dengan Garuda memang menimbulkan banyak masalah yang menghambat operasi Merpati. Apalagi pemisahan itu juga memberi kesempatan pada Garuda untuk menerbangi rute-rute domestik, yang sebelumnya juga diterbangi Merpati. Garuda dan Merpati pun bersaing di pasar yang sama. Persaingan semakin ketat karena sejumlah perusahaan swasta pun ikut meningkatkan frekuensi pada rute yang sama.
Pada masa itu, Merpati sempat menambah armada, dengan Fokker-100, pesanan Garuda yang dialihkan, dan B737-200. Armada yang beroperasi pun menjadi 86 pesawat, walaupun masih belum mencukupi untuk menerbangi 466 rute di lebih dari 130 kota.
Permasalahannya memang kian terbuka, walau tidak pernah diungkapkan seperti sekarang. Masalah-masalah tersebut berdampak kepada ketepatan jadwal penerbangan (OTP, on time performace) yang makin rendah. Rendahnya tingkat OTP itu betul-betul menurunkan citra Merpati di mata pelanggannya.
Menurunnya kinerja tersebut, antara lain karena banyaknya tipe pesawat yang dimilikinya. Merpati ketika itu memiliki 8 tipe pesawat yang berbeda, yaitu Fokker-100, B737-200, Fokker-28, BAe ATP, Fokker-27, CN-235, NC- 212, dan Twin Otter. Belum lagi banyaknya pesawat yang perlu perawatan sehingga menurunkan utilisasinya. Merpati pun sering terdengar "merugi".
Permasalah yang terjadi saling berkait antara satu dengan yang lain. Misalnya, penyewaan pesawat yang penuh mark up, sewa pesawat yang tidak feasible, dan berbagai penyimpangan lainnya. Bahkan dikatakan, hampir semua transaksi yang terjadi tidak mendukung langkah-langkah untuk membawa perusahaan menjadi sehat.
Meski demikian, Merpati harus siap menghadapi kondisi yang ada. Menjelang pemisahan dengan Garuda, pada akhir tahun 1996, Merpati berusaha mandiri, antara lain dengan cara lebih mengefisienkan diri dan memperbaiki kinerja perusahaan. Namun semua itu belum membuahkan hasil seperti yang diharapkan, antara lain karena belum bisa memecahkan masalah permodalan dan perestruktiurisasian di tubuh perusahaan. Kerugian pun makin membengkak hingga Rp135 milyar, dengan penurunan kinerja pelayanan yang seringkali mengecewakan para pelanggannya.
Direktur Utama Budiarto Subroto (1995-1999) berupaya mencari celah perbaikan dengan memangkas rute yang tidak menguntungkan. Saat itu, 34 rute perintis di Maluku, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, dan Sulawesi, yang biasanya diterbangi NC-212, dan enam rute lain di Papua, dipangkas jumlah frekuensinya dan ditutup, walau 28 rute perintis masih dipertahankan. Pada masa itu, Merpati lebih banyak menata kembali rute perintis.
Pada masa itu, Merpati dengan "berani" mendatangkan A310 dan A300-600 untuk menjelajah rute internasional ke Australia. Penerbangan ini membukukan utang yang tak sedikit. Belum lagi persoalan pesawat ATP yang tak lagi laik terbang sehingga grounded, walau tetap harus membayar sewa. Ada lagi Tristar, untuk menggantikan A310, dan kemudian BAe-146-100, yang operasinya hanya "sekejap".
Kerugian pun tak pernah "beranjak". Pada semester pertama 1997, misalnya, kerugiannya mencapai Rp40,1 milyar. Makin terpuruk pada semester kedua 1997, saat krisis mulai melanda. Hutang Merpati pun menjadi lebih besar dari asetnya.
Berdasarkan analisis pengamat penerbangan yang menyebut bahwa pada tahun 1998, nilai aset Merpati sudah mencapai lebih Rp 830 milyar di bawah utang, tidaklah menjadikan Merpati "bangkrut". Awal tahun 1999, Wahyu Hidayat dan jajarannya "diperintahkan" untuk membenahinya.
Gebrakan direksi baru itu cukup meyakinkan. Merpati mulai membenahi kinerja operasinya. Seperti, tingkat keselamatan penerbangan makin tinggi dan OTP (On Time Performance) secara perlahan merambat naik. Dengan slogan "Get The Feeling", Merpati mulai berbenah dengan serius. Tahun 1999, diumumkan bahwa Merpati meraih laba operasi, yang kedua setelah tahun 1992.
Namun, tantangan dan ancaman makin kompleks. Di luar, persaingan makin ketat. Selain bermunculan airlines swasta yang baru, Garuda pun makin menancapkan keberadaannya di domestik. Jumlah karyawannya saja 4.300 orang dengan 600 pilot, tapi hanya mengoperasikan 35 pesawat.

Merpati kini

Boeing 737-200
Tahun 2007, Merpati mulai melaksanakan program revitalisasi dan modernisasi armada secara parsial ,mengingat Merpati hingga saat ini masih bergelut dengan masalah keuangan[3][4], terutama armada perintis, dengan memesan 14 pesawat Xian MA60 dari Xian Aircraft China. Merpati juga sempat menyewa 1 ATR 72, namun kemudian dikembalikan karena dianggap tidak ekonomis (beberapa sumber menyatakan bahwa ATR hanya disewa sementara, menunggu tambahan MA60) . Merpati juga mengumumkan akan membeli 11 pesawat 30-kursi untuk rute domestik. (tipe belum dikonfirmasi), serta juga kemungkinan akan memesan pesawat N-219 buatan PTDI sekitar tahun 2011 ini.
Pada 7 Mei 2011 lalu, sebuah pesawat Xian MA60 (PK-MZK) jatuh di perairan Kaimana, menewaskan seluruh penumpangnya yang berjumlah 27 orang (21 penumpang dan 6 kru). Kecelakaan ini menambah panjang daftar kecelakaan yang melibatkan armada perintis Merpati. Kecelakaan terakhir yang dialami Merpati adalah pada tanggal 2 Agustus 2009, dimana sebuah Twin Otter jatuh di pegunungan di Papua, menewaskan seluruh 16 penumpangnya (13 penumpang dan 3 kru). Setelah kecelakaan di Kaimana, banyak pihak mempertanyakan keputusan Merpati membeli pesawat Xian MA60 tersebut, serta dugaan mark-up dan kolusi yang terjadi saat proses pembeliannya.
5 Juni 2011: Untuk memenuhi misinya sebagai 'Jembatan Udara Nusantara', Merpati Nusantara Airlines memerlukan 15 pesawat jet, ditambah 40 pesawat 50-penumpang dan 20 pesawat 20-penumpang seperti MA-60, NC-212, N-219, dan DHC-6 Twin Otter.[5] Bulan Juli 2011, Pemerintah dan DPR menyetujui penyuntikan modal senilai 516 milyar rupiah ke Merpati dalam APBN 2012.[6]. Kemudian, di bulan Oktober 2011, Pertamina menghentikan pasokan avtur ke Merpati di Surabaya dan Makassar akibat hutang biaya pembelian avtur senilai 270 milyar rupiah, sehingga menghentikan operasi Merpati dari kedua bandara tersebut[7]. Hutang total Merpati kepada Pertamina adalah sebesar 550 milyar rupiah, terdiri dari hutang pokok 270 milyar, dan sisanya bunga dan denda[8]. Namun, beberapa waktu kemudian, operasi Merpati dari kedua bandara tersebut sudah normal kembali.
Pada bulan Maret 2012, Merpati meluncurkan program "Tahun Emas Merpati Nusantara". Acara peluncuran yang disaksikan langsung oleh Menteri BUMN Dahlan Iskan dan duta maskapai Merpati Deddy Mizwar ini memberikan garansi OTP (On Time Performance) yang dinamai "On Time Guarantee" apabila pesawat Merpati delay lebih dari 4 jam atau dibatalkan, undian berhadiah 1 Toyota Voll Fire, 1 Toyota Innova, 12 Nissan Juke, 12 Smart Car Marcedes, 55 iPad 2, 55 Samsung Galaxy TAB 7 dan 55 Black Berry Onyx, serta membuka layanan Call Center baru di Bandung di nomor 08041621621 dan (022)88887777. Dalam program inipun Dahlan Iskan juga menjadi bintang iklannya yang menyatakan ia akan selalu naik Merpati, yang berbunyi : "Saya dan keluarga akan mengutamakan selalu naik Merpati".

Snare drum

Snare drum
2006-07-06 snare 14.jpg
Hornbostel–Sachs classification 211.212.11
(Individual double-skin cylindrical drums, one skin used for playing)
The drum kit
Drum Kit Bass drum China cymbal Snare drum Snare drum Floor tom Floor tom Splash cymbal Ride cymbal Toms Hi-hat Crash cymbal Drum hardware Drum hardware
About this image
1 Bass drum | 2 Floor tom | 3 Snare drum
4 Hanging toms | 5 Hi-hat | 6 Crash cymbal
7 Ride cymbal | 8 Splash cymbal | 9 China cymbal
Not shown
Sizzle cymbal Swish cymbal Crash/ride cymbal
Cowbell Wood block Tambourine
Rototom Octoban Temple block
Gong Triangle
See also
Drum hardware Drum stick Traps case
The snare drum or side drum is a widely used unpitched percussion instrument. It is often used in orchestras, marching bands and concert bands, drum corps and many other applications.
It is the center of the drum kit, the most prominent drum in most marching and stage bands, and the instrument that students of both orchestral and kit drumming learn to play first.
The snare drum is almost always double-headed, with rattles (called snares) of gut, metal wire or synthetics stretched across one or both heads. There are three main types where:
  • A single set of snares is applied to the underside of the bottom (Resonant) (unplayed) head. Orchestral and drum kit players use extremely thin, specialised resonant snare drum heads, far too light to be played directly, for this bottom head.
  • Marching and Pipe band side drums have a second set of snares on the underside of the top (played or batter) head on the inside of the drum, as well as a set on the underside of the bottom head.
  • The caixa de guerra ("war box") and tarol are Latin American snare drums with a single set of snares on the top of the top head.[1] A few of these drums omit the bottom head.
Different types of modern snare drums can be found, like piccolo snares, that have a smaller depth and popcorn snares that are smaller in diameter for a higher pitch, rope-tuned snares (maracatu snare), and the Brazilian tarol, which commonly has snares on the top of the upper drumhead.
Historically, snare drums have been used in military and parading contexts to produce drum cadences. Today in popular music, especially with rock drum kits, the snare drum is typically used to play a backbeat pattern.[2]
Popular backbeat pattern on snare drum[2] About this sound play 

Contents

Operation

Snares on a drum
Snare Strainer
The drum can be played by striking it with a drum stick or any other form of beater, including brushes and rutes, which produce a softer-sounding vibration from the wires. When using a stick, the drummer may strike either the head of the drum, the rim, or the shell. When the top head is struck the snares vibrate against the bottom head, also known as the resonate head, producing a cracking sound. The snares can often be thrown off with a lever on the strainer so that the drum only produces a sound reminiscent of a tom-tom.[3] Rim shots are a technique associated with snare drums in which the head and rim are struck simultaneously with one stick (or in concert playing, a stick placed on the head and rim struck by the opposite stick), and rudiments are sets of basic patterns often played on a snare drum.[4]
In contemporary and/or pop and rock music, where the snare drum is used as a part of a drum set, most of the backbeats and accented notes on the snare drum are played as rim shots, due to the ever increasing demand for the typical sharp and high volume sound. In more Latin and/or Jazz music, notes may be played as rim clicks where the sticks back end is placed on the edge of the top head and forced downward on the rim to the opposite side, to keep a more smooth and syncopated beat. The so-called "ghost notes" are very light "filler notes" played in between the backbeats in genres like funk, rhythm and blues. The famous drum roll is produced by alternatively bouncing the sticks on the drum head striving for a controlled rebound. A similar effect can be obtained by playing alternated double strokes on the drum, creating a double stroke roll, or very fast single strokes, creating a single stroke roll. The snares are a fundamental ingredient to the drum roll as they help blend together distinct strokes that are therefore perceived as a single sustained sound. The snare drum is also a very good tool to use to get used to the drumset without playing a full drumset.

Construction

Snare drums may be made from various wood, metal, or acrylic materials. A typical diameter for snare drums is 14 inches (36 cm). Marching snare drums are deeper in size than snare drums normally used for orchestral or drum kit purposes, often measuring in at a foot long. Orchestral and drum set snare drum shells are about 6 inches (15 cm) deep. Piccolo snare drums are even more shallow at about 3 inches (7.6 cm) deep. Soprano, popcorn, and firecracker snare drums have diameters as small as 8 inches (20 cm) and are often used for higher-pitched special effects.[3]
Most snare drums are constructed in plies that are heat- and compression-moulded into a cylinder. Steam-bent shells consist of one ply of wood that is gradually rounded into a cylinder and glued at one seam. Reinforcement hoops are generally needed on the inside surface of the drum to keep it perfectly round. Segment shells are made of multiple stacks of segmented wood rings. The segments are glued together and rounded out by a lathe. Similarly, stave shells are constructed of vertically glued pieces of wood into a cylinder (much like a barrel) that is also rounded out by a lathe. Solid shells are constructed of one solid piece of hollowed wood.
The Heads or skins consist of a batter head, which forms the playing surface on the top of the drum and a resonant head on the bottom, the resonant head is usually much thinner than the batter head and as such is not beaten while playing. Most modern drums use plastic (Mylar) skins of around 10 mils thicknness, sometimes with multiple plys (usually two) of around 7 mils for the batter head, in addition tone control rings or dots can be manufactured on the skins either on the outer surface or the inner surface to control overtones and ringing when played and can be found positioned in the centre or close to the edge hoops or both. Resonant heads are usually only a few mils thick to enable them to respond with the movement of the batter head as it is played. Pipe band requirements have led to the developement of a kevlar based head to enable very high state of tuning to produce a very high pitched cracking snare sound.

History

A blue snare drum
The snare drum seems to have descended from a medieval drum called the Tabor, which was a drum with a single gut snare strung across the bottom. It is a bit bigger than a medium tom and was first used in war, often played with a fife or pipe; the player would play both the fife and drum (see also Pipe and tabor).[5][6] Tabors were not always double headed[7] and not all may have had snares. By the 15th century, the size of the snare drum increased and had a cylindrical shape. This simple drum with a simple snare became popular with the Swiss mercenary troops who used the fife and drum around the 15th-16th century, due to influence from the Ottoman Turk's use of the drum in their armies. The drum was made deeper and carried along the side. Further developments appeared in the 17th century, with the use of screws to hold down the snares, giving a brighter sound than the rattle of a loose snare. During the 18th century, the snare drum underwent changes that would improve its characteristic sound. Metal snares appeared in the 20th century. Today the snare drum is used in pop music and modern orchestral music.[8]
Much of the development of the snare drum and the drum rudiments is closely tied with the use of the snare drum in the military. In his book, The Art of Snare Drumming, Sanford A. Moeller (of the "Moeller Method" of drumming) states, "To acquire a knowledge of the true nature of the [snare] drum, it is absolutely necessary to study military drumming, for it is essentially a military instrument and its true character cannot be brought out with an incorrect method. When a composer wants a martial effect, he instinctively turns to the drums".
Before the advent of radio and electronic communications, the snare drum was often used to communicate orders to the soldiers. American troops were woken up by drum and fife, playing about 5 minutes of music, including the well known Three Camps.[9] Troops were also called for meals by certain drum pieces such as "Peas on a Trencher," or "Roast Beef." A piece called the "Tattoo" was used to signal that all soldiers should be in their tent, and "Fatigue Call" was used to police the quarters or drum unruly women out of the camp.[10]
Many of these military pieces required a thorough grounding in rudiment drumming; indeed Moeller states that: "They [the rudimental drummers] were the only ones who could do it [play the military camp duty pieces]".[11] Moeller furthermore states that "No matter how well a drummer can read, if he does not know the rudimental system of drumming, it is impossible for him to play 'The Three Camps,' 'Breakfast Call,' or in fact any of the Duty except the simple beats such as 'The Troop.'"[12]
During the late eighteenth and nineteenth century, the military bugle largely supplanted the snare and fife for signals. Most modern militaries and scouting groups use the bugle alone to make bugle calls that announce scheduled and unscheduled events of the organization (from First Call to Taps). While most modern military signals use just the bugle, the snare is still retained for some signals, e.g. the Adjutant's Call.
Snare heads originally were of calf skin. The invention of the plastic (mylar) drum head is credited to Marion "Chick" Evans,[13] who (apparently) made the first plastic drum head in 1956.
The development of drum rudiments seem to have developed with the snare drum; the Swiss fife and drum groups are sometimes credited with their invention.[14] The first written rudiment was in Basel, Switzerland in 1610.[15] Rudiments with familiar names are listed in Charles Ashworth's book in 1812 such as the (single) paradiddle, flam, drag, ratamacue, the roll (a double stroke roll, also called the "ma-ma da-da" roll), among others.

Definitions

  • Military, or field drum: a snare drum, 14 to 16 inches in diameter, 9 to 16 inches deep, with a wood or metal shell and the two heads stretched by tensioning screws. It has a snare release lever to activate(deactivate) a minimum of 8 metal, gut, or plastic snares. The term came into use in 1837 with the invention of the tensioning-screw mechanism. It is frequently placed on a stand.[16]
  • Side drum: Common British and Scottish Highland term for a snare drum.[17]

Types

There are many types of snare drums, including:
  • Marching snare (high tension)
  • Drum kit snare
  • Piccolo snare
  • Maracatu snare (rope-tuned)
  • Tarol
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